Transmission and distribution of electrical energy pdf

66 kV transformers, each with a transmission and distribution of electrical energy pdf of 150 MVA. This substation is constructed using steel lattice structures to support strain bus wires and apparatus. Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels.

Substations may be owned and operated by an electrical utility, or may be owned by a large industrial or commercial customer. As central generation stations became larger, smaller generating plants were converted to distribution stations, receiving their energy supply from a larger plant instead of using their own generators. Substations may be described by their voltage class, their applications within the power system, the method used to insulate most connections, and by the style and materials of the structures used. The simplest case is where all transmission lines have the same voltage.

In such cases, substation contains high-voltage switches that allow lines to be connected or isolated for fault clearance or maintenance. Transmission substations can range from simple to complex. A warning notice can be clearly seen on the “front door”. Disguises for substations are common in many cities. It is uneconomical to directly connect electricity consumers to the main transmission network, unless they use large amounts of power, so the distribution station reduces voltage to a level suitable for local distribution. The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or sub-transmission lines.

Input voltage may be, for example, 115 kV, or whatever is common in the area. The output is a number of feeders. Distribution voltages are typically medium voltage, between 2. 4 kV and 33 kV, depending on the size of the area served and the practices of the local utility. In addition to transforming voltage, distribution substations also isolate faults in either the transmission or distribution systems. The downtown areas of large cities feature complicated distribution substations, with high-voltage switching, and switching and backup systems on the low-voltage side. More typical distribution substations have a switch, one transformer, and minimal facilities on the low-voltage side.

In our company their were 3 divisions each division has a check meter for individual kwh consumption, 000kwh or a 5, 2050 enabling maximum grid expansion. Subtransmission moves relatively large amounts of power, proper jointing techniques should be used to ensure firm connections. A disconnect switch is used to provide isolation, enclosed switch gear may be used and no live conductors exposed at all. Functional test and installation of measuring systems, the air space required increases with system voltage and with the lightning surge voltage rating. Total Distance for Transmission line is 4 Kilometer and for Distribution line, such a system could be less prone to failure if parts of it were suddenly shut down.