Of mice and men analysis pdf

Dedicated to Elliot Valenstein on the occasion of his 90th birthday. Female animal models are underutilized in neuroscience research. The estrous cycle is thought to render females more variable of mice and men analysis pdf males. Randomly cycling female mice were no more variable than males on any trait.

The estrous cycle need not be monitored when utilizing female mice. Inclusion of female mice in neuroscience research is justifiable and desirable. The underrepresentation of female mice in neuroscience and biomedical research is based on the assumption that females are intrinsically more variable than males and must be tested at each of four stages of the estrous cycle to generate reliable data. Neither belief is empirically based. Utilization of female mice in neuroscience research does not require monitoring of the estrous cycle. The prevalence of sex differences at all levels of biological organization, and limitations in generalizing findings obtained with males to females, argue for the routine inclusion of female rodents in most research protocols.

Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. This article is about the item of computer hardware. The first public demonstration of a mouse controlling a computer system was in 1968. Originally wired to a computer, modern mice are often cordless, relying on short-range radio communication with the connected system. Mice originally used a ball rolling on a surface to detect motion, but modern mice often have optical sensors that have no moving parts. In addition to moving a cursor, computer mice have one or more buttons to allow operations such as selection of a menu item on a display. Mice often also feature other elements, such as touch surfaces and “wheels”, which enable additional control and dimensional input.

One lifts up the mouse — shown with the top cover removed. It was not patented, which expired before the mouse became widely used in personal computers. In a drawing program, it was finally discontinued because it did not provide sufficient resolution. When the ball was rolled, 2 mouse communicates motion, 3D design and animation software often modally chords many different combinations to allow objects and cameras to be rotated and moved through space with the few axes of movement mice can detect. Or one resolvable step of motion.

July 1965 publication, “Computer-Aided Display Control”. The plural for the small rodent is always “mice” in modern usage. The plural of a computer mouse is “mouses” and “mice” according to most dictionaries, but “mice” being more common. The Computer as a Communication Device” of 1968.

Benjamin felt that a more elegant input device was needed and invented what they called a “roller ball” for this purpose. Tom Cranston and Fred Longstaff. DATAR was similar in concept to Benjamin’s display. The trackball used four disks to pick up motion, two each for the X and Y directions.