Humans geography john short pdf

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The coast of Callan Glen, Hamilton Parish, Bermuda. Aerial view of Bermuda looking west, St. Bermuda’s ecology has been altered radically since the 16th century by humans and the plants and animals they introduced. Underwater archaeology of the caldera basin to the north shows that the area was once densely forested with junipers when it was above sea level. The juniper is an endemic species, though related to species found in North America. Prior to human settlement, there were several million juniper trees in Bermuda. By the 1830s, large areas of Bermuda had been denuded by the shipbuilding industry.

As that industry died out in the 19th century, however, the junipers rapidly recovered their numbers. By 1900, when the human population neared 20,000, the islands were again covered densely with juniper, although many of these were juvenile trees. The respite proved temporary, however. Over the next decade, roughly 8 million juniper trees were lost to the scales. Efforts to restore it centre around intensively managed land areas, such as gardens and golf courses. Other large plant species, which were never as numerous as the juniper, had also fared poorly in the presence of invasive species, but have become popular with gardeners and their numbers also have increased in managed areas.

Many of the smaller endemic and native plants of Bermuda are rare and endangered, but others have survived and prospered. Bermudian, but a Mediterranean import. There were few species of land animal in Bermuda before the arrival of humans. These were quite numerous, but have become rare due to predation by introduced species, and, especially, the introduction of glass bottles, in which they easily become trapped. Insects included the endemic, ground-burrowing solitary bee, which has not been observed for several decades and is believed extinct.

The most numerous animals were, and are, birds. 1957, with the intent that it would control the previously introduced anoles. This is a pelagic seabird which had dug burrows for its nests. Humans are believed to have killed millions of them after settlement began in 1609, and feral pigs, introduced presumably by Spaniards decades before, also attacked their nests. Before the 17th century was over, the cahow was believed to be extinct. Mowbray in 1951 and discovered a handful of nesting pairs.