Human occupied landfill pdf download

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Afterward, the waste collection vehicles use the existing road network on their way to the tipping face or working front, where they unload their contents. Before leaving the landfill boundaries, the waste collection vehicles may pass through a wheel-cleaning facility. If necessary, they return to the weighbridge for re-weighing without their load. The weighing process can assemble statistics on the daily incoming waste tonnage, which databases can retain for record keeping. In addition to trucks, some landfills may have equipment to handle railroad containers.

The use of “rail-haul” permits landfills to be located at more remote sites, without the problems associated with many truck trips. Typically, in the working face, the compacted waste is covered with soil or alternative materials daily. Blankets can be lifted into place at night and then removed the following day prior to waste placement. The space that is occupied daily by the compacted waste and the cover material is called a daily cell. Waste compaction is critical to extending the life of the landfill. Factors such as waste compressibility, waste-layer thickness and the number of passes of the compactor over the waste affect the waste densities. Landfills are often the most cost-efficient way to dispose of waste, especially in countries like the United States with large open spaces.

Another advantage is having a specific location for disposal that can be monitored, where waste can be processed to remove all recyclable materials before tipping. Landfills have the potential to cause a number of issues. Extensive efforts are made to capture and treat leachate from landfills before it reaches groundwater aquifers, but engineered liners always have a lifespan, though it may be 100 years or more. Rotting food and other decaying organic waste allows methane and carbon dioxide to seep out of the ground and up into the air.

In properly managed landfills, gas is collected and utilized. In a properly managed landfill this gas is collected and used. Landfill gas monitoring alerts workers to the presence of a build-up of gases to a harmful level. United States, for example, more than 850 landfills have active landfill gas recovery systems. Some former locations have been converted to parkland. Permitting a landfill generally takes between 5 and 7 years, costs millions of dollars and requires rigorous siting, engineering and environmental studies and demonstrations to ensure local environmental and safety concerns are satisfied.